Research Theory Design & Methods

 

Research Theory Design & Methods
Week 6: Research, Theory, Design & methods.
Week 6: Quantitative Research Designs, Continued
1. No discussion about quantitative research design would be complete without mention of validity and reliability. Most broadly, validity refers to meaningfulness and reliability refers to consistency. Together, validity and reliability serve as the foundation for sound scientific inquiry. When quantitative researchers design and implement their research, they do so to identify valid and reliable descriptions, relationships, and/or predictions.
This week, you will consider the threats to validity in quantitative research and explore strategies to mitigate these threats. You will also consider the ethical issues in quantitative research, the implications these issues have on design decisions, and the strategies used to address them. You will also annotate a quantitative journal article on a research topic of your interest.
Learning Objectives
Students will:
路 Explain threats to internal validity and external validity in quantitative research
路 Explain strategies to mitigate threats to internal validity and external validity in quantitative research
路 Identify ethical issues in quantitative research
路 Explain how ethical issues influence design decisions in quantitative research
路 Explain criteria for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a quantitative approach
路 Apply strategies for addressing ethical issues in quantitative research
路 Annotate a quantitative research article
路 Apply APA Style to writing
Learning Resources
Required Readings
路 Babbie, E. (2017) Basics of social research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Chapter 3, 鈥淭he Ethics and Politics of Social Research鈥.
路 Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016). The scholar-practitioner鈥檚 guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing. Chapter 7. 鈥淨uality Considerations鈥
路 Document: Threats to internal Validity (PDF)
路 Walden University: Center for Research Quality (2018). Research ethics & compliance: Documents and FAQs. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/orec/documents
路 Download the 鈥淩esearch Ethics Planning Worksheet鈥. Read this document to understand the ethical standards that researchers must address during the research planning process.
路 Walden University: Center for Research Quality. (2015c). Research resources: Research planning & writing. Retrieved fromhttp://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/resources/planning
Download the 鈥淟itmus Test鈥 document.
路 Walden University. (2015a). How do I find an article that reports on research that uses a specific methodology? Retrieved from http://academicanswers.waldenu.edu/faq/72633
路 Walden University Writing Center. (2015). Common course assignments: Annotated bibliographies. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/assignments/annotatedbibliographies
Required Media
路 Gjellstad, L. (nd). IRB Form for Ethics Review at Walden [online tutorial]. Retrieved from https://crq.adobeconnect.com/pz08vcneze53
路 Price, S. (2015). Annotated bibliographies [Online webinar]. Retrieved from聽https://waldencss.adobeconnect.com/p7d6uqxv8g3?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal
Discussion Part
Discussion: Designing Quantitative Research
Researchers consider validity and reliability with each new study they design. This is because validity and reliability are not fixed but rather reflect a particular study鈥檚 unique variables, research design, instruments, and participants.
In the context of research design, two types of validity, which speak to the quality of different features of the research process, are considered: internal validity and external validity. Assuming that the findings of a research study are internally valid鈥攊.e., the researcher has used controls to determine that the outcome is indeed due to manipulation of the independent variable or the treatment鈥攅xternal validity refers to the extent to which the findings can be generalized from the sample to the population or to other settings and groups. Reliability refers to the replicability of the findings.
路 For this Discussion, you will consider threats to internal and external validity in quantitative research and the strategies used to mitigate these threats. You will also consider the ethical implications of designing quantitative research.
With these thoughts in mind:(2-3 pages)
By Day 4
路 Post an explanation of a threat to internal validity and a threat to external validity in quantitative research. Next, explain a strategy to mitigate each of these threats. Then, identify a potential ethical issue in quantitative research and explain how it might influence design decisions. Finally, explain what it means for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a quantitative approach.
路 Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the week鈥檚 Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.
Read a selection of your class By Day 6
Respond to a classmate by offering a strategy to address the ethical issue she or he identified.
Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria: To assess your rubric
Week 6 Discussion Rubric: Post by day 4 and Respond by Day 6
To participate in this Discussion: Week 6 to participate in week 6 postings.
Assignment Part (2-5 pages)
Assignment: Annotation of a Quantitative Research Article
1. Submit: Annotation of a Quantitative Research Article
路 This week, you will submit the annotation of a quantitative research article on a topic of your interest. Quasi-experimental, casual comparative, correlational, pretest鈥損osttest, or true experimental are examples of types of research designs used in quantitative research.
An annotation consists of three separate paragraphs that cover three respective components: summary, analysis, and application. These three components convey the relevance and value of the source. As such, an annotation demonstrates your critical thinking about, and authority on, the source. This week鈥檚 annotation is a precursor to the annotated bibliography assignment due in Week 10.
An annotated bibliography is a document containing selected sources accompanied by a respective annotation of each source. In preparation for your own future research, an annotated bibliography provides a background for understanding a portion of the existing literature on a particular topic. It is also a useful first step in gathering sources in preparation for writing a subsequent literature review as part of a dissertation.
Please review the assignment instructions below and click on the underlined words for information about how to craft each component of an annotation.
It is recommended that you use the grading rubric as a self-evaluation tool before submitting your assignment.
By Day 7
路 Use the Walden library databases to search for one quantitative research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest.
路 Before you read the full article and begin your annotation, locate the methodology section in the article to be sure that the article describes a quantitative study. Confirm that one of the types of quantitative designs, such as quasi-experimental, casual comparative, correlational, pretest鈥損osttest, or true experimental, was used in the study.
路 Annotate one quantitative research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest.
路 Provide the reference list entry for this article in APA Style followed by a three-paragraph annotation that includes:
路 A summary
路 An analysis
路 An application as illustrated in this example
路 Format your annotation in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-spaced. A separate References list page is not needed for this assignment.
路 Submit your annotation.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
路 Please save your Assignment using the naming convention 鈥淲K6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)鈥 as the name.
路 Click the Week 6 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
路 Click the Week 6 Assignment link. You will also be able to 鈥淰iew Rubric鈥 for grading criteria from this area.
路 Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as 鈥淲K6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)鈥 and click Open.
路 If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
路 Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric: Week 6 Assignment rubric
Check your assignment draft for authenticity
Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity
To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:
Submit your Week 6 Assignment draft and review the originality report.
Submit Your Assignment by Day 7: To submit your assignment
Week 6 Assignment

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

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  • Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, including a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words. Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source. One or two-sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or 鈥済ood post,鈥 and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words. I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

  • Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately. In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies. Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else鈥檚 work). Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

  • APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with the APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in Loud-cloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required). Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation. I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

  • Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage over-utilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Master鈥檚 level and deduct points accordingly. As Masters鈥 level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else鈥檚 words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content. It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

  • LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to Lopes Write, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a 鈥渇inal submit鈥 to me. Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes. Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else鈥檚 thoughts more than your own? Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in Loud-cloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

  • Late Policy

The university鈥檚 policy on late assignments is a 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies. Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances. If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect. I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension. As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

  • Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me: Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class. Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

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