Reflection 3 Theory

Reflection 3 Theory

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Chapter 28

Dr. Troutman-Jordan’s Theory of Successful Aging

Developed by D. Gullett (2014)

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Overview of the Theory

The impetus for developing the theory of successful aging was enhanced understanding of successful aging, captured from the older adult’s perspective, and identification of foci for interventions to foster successful aging.

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Overview of the Theory (cont)

Foundation:

  • Developed from a concept analysis of successful aging
  • Foundations:

Roy’s Adaptation Model

Tornstam’s sociological theory of gerotranscendence

Other literature on concepts of successful aging

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Theoretical Assumptions

  • Aging is a progressive process requiring from simple to increasingly complex adaptation;
  • Aging may be successful or unsuccessful, depending upon where a person is along the continuum of progression from simple to more complex adaptation and the extensive use of coping processes;
  • Successful aging is influenced by the aging person’s choices;
  • The self is not ageless (Tornstam, 1996); and
  • Aging people experience changes, which uniquely characterize their beliefs and perspectives as different from those of younger adults (Flood, 2006a).

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Definition of Theory

The theory of successful aging describes the process by which individuals use various coping mechanisms to progress toward desirable adaptation to the collective physiologic and functional changes occurring over their lifetime, while maintaining a sense of spirituality, connectedness, and meaning and purpose in life.

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Foundation of Theory

Three coping processes (the way one responds to the changing environment)

Functional Performance Mechanisms

Intrapsychic factors

Spirituality

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Constructs (within each Coping Processes)

Within each coping process there are measurable output responses- provide feedback to the person.

Cognitive

Behavioral

Affective

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Coping Processes/Output Responses

  • Typical age-related declines that occur

Indicators

  • Health promotion activities
  • Physical health
  • Physical mobility
  • Annual physical exams
  • Current chronic and acute disease
  • Gait mobility

Functional Performance Mechanisms

Output Responses

  • Each is a manifestation of the human adaptive response of functional performance mechanism

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Coping Processes/Output Responses

  • Use of inherent character traits to respond to environmental stimuli

Intrapsychic Factors

Output Responses

  • Creativity
  • Low levels of negativity
  • Personal Control

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Coping Processes/Output Responses

  • The sense of connection and beliefs about a higher power the older adult has help shape his values, beliefs, and behaviors while living especially in terms of what he believes happens after death.

Spirituality

Output responses

  • Spiritual perspective
  • Prayer
  • Religiosity

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Gerotranscendence

  • Shift in metaperspective from materialistic and rationalistic to a more mature and existential one that accompanies the process of aging.
  • New outlook on and understanding of life
  • Broad existential changes
  • Changes in one’s view of the present self & the self in retrospect
  • Developmental changes (r/t existential changes and changes in self)

Associated with positive gaining and has been theorized as a precursor to successful aging

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Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company

Gerotranscendence (cont)

Three Levels of age-related change occur

Cosmic dimension-relates to the feeling of being a part of and at one with the universe

Self dimension-deals with one’s self perception

Social dimension-increase in a sense of interrelatedness to others

  • Assessed using the Gerotranscendence Scale (GS) (Tornstam, 1994)

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Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company

Gerotranscendence (cont)

A reasonable and well-balanced integration of the outputs of each foundational coping process for each individual, rather than an ideal amount or combinations of features from within the foundational coping processes, must be present in order for the aging person to experience gerotranscendence.

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Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company

Measuring Successful Aging

  • Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) is a 20-item questionnaire

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