Public Health Policies

Public Health Policies

Instructions:

  1. Answer the following questions below:
    1. How do public health policies and interventions affect your daily life?  Use examples.
    2. What are some examples of primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention for specific disease conditions?
      • When would each type of prevention be appropriate?
  2. rubric:
    • be typed in WORD, double spaced.
    • be three (3) or more pages.
    • include a Title page and a Reference page.
    • use factual information from the textbook and/or appropriate articles and websites.
    • be original work, and will be checked for plagiarism.
    • Use attached PDF files from book as source

      Chapter 1 Global Health

      Transitions

       

       

      Defining Global Health 1.1

       

       

      Defining Health

      • The Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”

      • A diversity of medical, behavioral, social, economic, environmental, and other interventions can help people make progress toward long, healthy life trajectories.

       

       

      Figure 1-1

      Examples of health trajectories.

       

       

      Defining Global Health

      • Global health refers to the collaborative actions taken to identify and address transnational concerns about the exposures and diseases that adversely affect human populations.

      • There are many different lenses that are used to identify global health issues.

       

       

      Figure 1-2

      PACES: defining global health.

       

       

      Figure 1-3

      PACES: examples of global health priorities.

       

       

      Health Interventions 1.2

       

       

      Causes of Disease

      • Etiology is the study of the social and behavioral, environmental, biological, and other causes of disease.

      • A person’s health status at a given age is a function of his or her experiences across the life course.

       

       

      Medicine and Public Health • Medicine focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and

      treating health problems in individuals and families. • Public health focuses on promoting health and

      preventing illnesses, injuries, and early deaths at the population level by identifying and mitigating environmental hazards, promoting healthy behaviors, ensuring access to essential health services, and taking other actions to protect the health, safety, and wellbeing of groups of people.

      • The lines between medicine and public health are blurry.

       

       

      Figure 1-4

      Essential public health services

      Reproduced from The public health system

      & the 10 essential public health services. Centers

      for D isease Control and Prevention w

      ebsite https://w

      w w

      .cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/publichealthservices/essentialhealthservices.htm l.

      U pdated Septem

      ber 20, 2017.

       

       

      Figure 1-5

      Comparing medicine and public health.

       

       

      Interventions

      • An intervention is a strategic action intended to improve individual and population health status.

      • Interventions targeted at any level, from the individual to the community, the nation, and the world, can be effective at improving personal and public health.

       

       

      Figure 1-6

      Examples of interventions that improve health trajectories across the life span.

       

       

      Prevention Science 1.3

       

       

      Prevention

      • “Prevention is better than a cure.” • Prevention science is the study of which preventive health interventions are effective in various populations, how successful the interventions are, and how well they can be scaled up for widespread implementation.

      • There are three levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary.

       

       

      Figure 1-7

      Maintaining good health status through preventive interventions is less costly than paying for rehabilitation after health crises.

       

       

      Figure 1-8

      Three levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary.

       

       

      Health Transitions 1.4

       

       

      Health Transitions

      • A health transition is a shift in the health status of a population that usually occurs in conjunction with socioeconomic development.

      • Because some countries have gone through these health transitions and other countries have not, there are now significant differences in health status in the highest-income and lowest- income countries.

       

       

      Figure 1-9

      Examples of health transitions.

       

       

      Figure 1-10

      There are significant differences in health status and access to the tools for health in low-income and high-income countries.

       

       

      World Regions and Featured Countries

      1.5

       

       

      Featured Countries

      • Data from eight large countries will be used to represent the diversity of the world’s health profiles.

       

       

      Figure 1-11

      The eight featured countries represent nearly half of the world’s population.

      D ata from

      W orld developm

      ent indicators 2016. W ashington: W

      orld Bank; 2016.

       

       

      Figure 1-12

      Eight featured countries by income group. (The countries are listed in order from highest

      to lowest human development index.)

      D ata from

      W orld developm

      ent indicators 2016. W

      ashington: W orld Bank; 2016; and H

      um an developm

      ent report 2016. N

      ew York: U

      N D

      P; 2016.

       

       

      Figure 1-13

      Most of the world’s people live in a country classified as middle income by the World Bank.

      D ata from

      W orld developm

      ent indicators 2016. W

      ashington: W orld Bank; 2016.

       

       

      Figure 1-14

      The eight featured countries represent nearly half of the world’s population.

      D ata from

      W orld developm

      ent indicators 2016. W ashington:

      W orld Bank; 2016.

       

       

      Figure 1-15

      Eight featured countries by geographic location.

      D ata from

      W orld developm

      ent indicators 2016. W ashington:

      W orld Bank; 2016; and W

      orld health statistics 2016: M onitoring

      health for the SD G

      s. G eneva: W

      H O

      ; 2016.

       

       

      Figure 1-16

      Income level terminology.

       

       

      Figure 1-17

      Examples of socioeconomic and health trends.

      D ata from

      H um

      an developm ent report 2016. N

      ew York: U

      N D

      P; 2016.

       

       

      Global Health Security 1.6

       

       

      Security • Global health security seeks to protect populations

      from threats to health and safety by engaging a diversity of stakeholders, including governmental and military personnel, in public health interventions.

      • Communities and countries suffering from widespread health problems are more likely to have political and economic instability, and poverty and unrest can further exacerbate public health problems that might spill over into other parts of the world.

      • International and global health initiatives can help to break this cycle, facilitating peace and productivity.

       

       

      Globalization and Health: Shared Futures

      1.7

       

       

      Globalization

      • Globalization is the process of countries around the world becoming more integrated and interdependent across economic, political, cultural, and other domains.

      • Global health offers a proactive way to prevent outbreaks (and to respond to them when they happen), to protect economic and political interests at home and abroad, to promote goodwill and humanitarian values, and to achieve shared health goals.

       

       

      Shared Futures

      • The health patterns that exist today are not the same as the patterns from 100 years ago, and new health transitions will occur in the coming decades.

      • Global health provides an opportunity to use prevention strategies and other interventions to shape a healthier, safer future for the world’s people.

       

      • Chapter 1
      • Defining Global Health
      • Defining Health
      • Figure 1-1
      • Defining Global Health
      • Figure 1-2
      • Figure 1-3
      • Health Interventions
      • Causes of Disease
      • Medicine and Public Health
      • Figure 1-4
      • Figure 1-5
      • Interventions
      • Figure 1-6
      • Prevention Science
      • Prevention
      • Figure 1-7
      • Figure 1-8
      • Health Transitions
      • Health Transitions
      • Figure 1-9
      • Figure 1-10
      • World Regions and Featured Countries
      • Featured Countries
      • Figure 1-11
      • Figure 1-12
      • Figure 1-13
      • Figure 1-14
      • Figure 1-15
      • Figure 1-16
      • Figure 1-17
      • Global Health Security
      • Security
      • Globalization and Health: Shared Futures
      • Globalization
      • Shared Futures

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