Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment

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…heart disease remains the №1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke-some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…

-Murphy et al., 2018

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm

To Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
  • Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
  • Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
  • Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
  • Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
  • Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

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Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.

Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.

Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan, and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Written Expression and Formatting — Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused-neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.

Written Expression and Formatting — English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation

Written Expression and Formatting — The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment Essay Example

Behavior impact on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics Impact of change in the process on the patient’s recommended drug therapy.

Hypertension (HTN) affects around 29 percent of the adult population in the United States. High blood pressure raises one’s risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Due to the lack of early signs, high blood pressure (HBP) is frequently referred to as “the silent killer” (Kovell et al., 2015). HTN may be categorized as either essential or non-essential. In addition to age and ethnicity, behavioral variables such as obesity, alcohol use, and dietary salt intake are essential. We may reduce HTN risk by changing one’s behavior toward a patient with a background of obesity and just gained 9 pounds. Cholesterol levels are elevated in people with hyperlipidemia (HLD). Coronary heart disease is indeed a factor in the development of HLD. HLD is caused by environmental variables such as obesity, foods rich in lipids, illness conditions such as Diabetes mellitus, and drugs like beta-blockers (Arcangelo et al., 2017). It has a significant effect on HLD and HTN when people engage in this practice. The everyday use of fast food and lack of exercise exposes them to a diet heavy in sodium and cholesterol. HTN and HLD are prevented due to changes in nutrition, exercise, and stress reduction (Oikonomou et al., 2018). The metabolism and reaction of medications in the body influence a person’s diet and nutrition. It is important to note that the intake of medicine is affected by the presence or absence of meals, which may lower or raise the solubility of the prescription. The uptake of atenolol by the body might be affected by fluids such as apple, orange, and grape.

Decreasing cardiovascular deaths and renal difficulties is the primary focus of HTN diagnosis and treatment efforts. Hydrochlorothiazide is the first-line treatment for stage I hypertension, which may be supplemented with ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blocks, or angiotensin II receptor blockers, if necessary. Atenolol, a beta-blocker, is being administered to patient AO. Hydralazine may be used as a vasodilator to treat stage II hypertension, particularly in individuals with essential hypertension. HTN sufferers may benefit from Doxazosin, which lowers cholesterol levels and relaxes smooth muscles to lower blood pressure.

Improving Drug Therapy Plan

In contrast to tricyclic antidepressants, Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that does not raise blood pressure (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Simvastatin is the first-line treatment for high cholesterol since it reduces LDL and triglyceride levels while boosting HDL, the good cholesterol. Those who use alcohol or have liver illness should avoid taking simvastatin because of the risk of increased transaminase levels. As a result, statins are often utilized as the first-line treatment for cardiovascular disease (Struijker-Boudier, 2017). Simvastatin should be started at a low dosage of 20–40mg in patients with no known cardiovascular risk factors, followed by a six-week LDL measurement, and then a six-to-12-month period of treatment in which the aim is to drop LDL to less than 100mg/dL. For this reason, it is recommended to take simvastatin at night, when most cholesterol production occurs (Struijker- Boudier, 2017). Fluid retention is to blame for the patient’s 9-pound weight increase. Indapamide 2.5mg daily, rather than atenolol, is the first-line treatment for stage I and II hypertension since hydrochlorothiazide may induce elevated levels of HLD. My recommendation is to switch to three-times-a-day administration of hydralazine for the patient, who is now taking it twice daily. I will watch the patient for any possible drug interactions since the patient will also be taking new drugs (Arcangelo et al., 2017).

References

Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Oikonomou, E., Psaltopoulou, T., Georgiopoulos, G., Siasos, G., Kokko, E., Antonopoulos, A., & … Tousoulis, D. (2018). Western dietary pattern is associated with severe coronary artery disease. Angiology, 69(4), 339–346. doi:10.1177/0003319717721603

Struijker-Boudier, H. (2017). Should a statin be given to all hypertensive patients? Artery Research, 18, 66–68. doi: 10.1016/j.artres.2017.04.001

Kovell, L. C., Ahmed, H. M., Misra, S., Whelton, S. P., Prokopowicz, G. P., Blumenthal, R. S., & Mcevoy, J. W. (2015). US Hypertension management guidelines: A review of the recent past and recommendations for the future. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4(12). doi:10.1161/jaha.115.002315

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