NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

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NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders:- Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders is a 2-week module, Weeks 3 and 4 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of cellular processes and the alterations that lead to various cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and disorders. You will evaluate the genetic environment and its impact on these diseases. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7, Weeks 3 and 4
Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Complete by Day 7 of Week 3
Module 2 Case Study Analysis You are encouraged to work on your Module 2 Assignment throughout the module. However, this Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 4.

Go to the Week’s Content
 
Week 3
Week 4

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NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

The circulatory system and the respiratory system are powerful partners in health. While they work closely together in good health, a disease or disorder that manifests in one can have a significant impact on both, hampering the pair’s ability to collaborate.
Cardiovascular and respiratory disease and disorders are among the most common reasons for hospital visits, and among the leading causes of fatality. Heart disease and pneumonias are among the most familiar, but a wide variety of issues can impact physiological functioning of one or both systems.
This week, you examine fundamental concepts of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. You explore common diseases and disorders that impact these systems, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the lifespan

Learning Resources

Required Readings

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 32: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems; Summary Review
  • Chapter 33: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function (stop at Dysrhythmias); Summary Review
  • Chapter 35: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System; Summary Review
  • Chapter 36: Alterations of Pulmonary Function (stop at Disorders of the chest wall and pleura); (obstructive pulmonary diseases) (stop at Pulmonary artery  hypertension); Summary Review

 
Inamdar, A. A. & Inamdar, A. C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management, and utilization, 5(7). doi:10.3390/jcm5070062
Required Media

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Module 2 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 2 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and Assignment. (4m)

Pneumonia

MedCram. (2015, September 14). Pneumonia explained clearly by MedCram.com [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqyPECmkSeo
Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.
 

NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 32, 33, 35, and 36 that relate to cardiorespiratory systems and alteration in cardiorespiratory systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.
Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • myocardial infarction
    • endocarditis
    • myocarditis
    • valvular disorders
    • lipid panels
    • coagulation
    • clotting cascade
    • deep vein thrombosis
    • hypertension
    • heart failure
    • COPD
    • asthma
    • pneumonias

Complete the Knowledge Check by Day 7 of Week 3
To complete this Knowledge Check:
Module 2 Knowledge Check

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What’s Coming Up in Week 4?

Next week, you will examine the alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes through case study analysis. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact altered physiology.
Next Week
To go to the next week:
Week 4
 

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NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Week 4: Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

Cardiovascular and respiratory disorders can quickly become dangerous healthcare matters, and they routinely land among the leading causes of hospital admissions. Disorders in these areas are complicated by the fact that these two systems work so closely as contributors to overall health. APRNs working to form a similarly close partnership with patients must demonstrate not only support and compassion, but expertise to guide the understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans. This includes an understanding of patient medical backgrounds, relevant characteristics, and other variables that can be factors in their diagnoses and treatments.
This week, you examine alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes. You also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze processes related to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders
  • Analyze alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes
  • Analyze racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Required Readings

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 32: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems; Summary Review
  • Chapter 33: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function (stop at Dysrhythmias); Summary Review
  • Chapter 35: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System; Summary Review
  • Chapter 36: Alterations of Pulmonary Function (stop at Disorders of the chest wall and pleura); (obstructive pulmonary diseases) (stop at Pulmonary artery hypertension); Summary Review

Note: The above chapters were first presented in the Week 3 resources. If you read them previously you are encouraged to review them this week.
 
Inamdar, A. A. & Inamdar, A. C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management, and utilization, 5(7). doi:10.3390/jcm5070062
Note: The above article was first presented in the Week 3 resources. If you read it previously you are encouraged to review it this week.
Required Media

Pneumonia

MedCram. (2015, September 14). Pneumonia explained clearly by MedCram [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqyPECmkSeo
Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.
(Previously reviewed in Week 3)

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NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 32, 33, 35, and 36 that relate to cardiorespiratory systems and alteration in cardiorespiratory systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/
 

NURS 6501 Week 3 Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Module 2 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the fact that these two systems work so closely together. A variety of factors and circumstances that impact the emergence and severity of issues in one system can have a role in the performance of the other.
Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their capacity to work together. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.
An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

Scenario 4 (week 4):

45-year-old woman presents with the chief complaint of 3-day duration of shortness of breath, cough with thick green sputum production, and fevers. The patient has a history of COPD with a chronic cough but states the cough has gotten much worse and is interfering with her sleep. Sputum is thicker and harder for her to expectorate. CXR reveals a flattened diaphragm and an increased AP diameter. Auscultation demonstrates hyper resonance and coarse rales and rhonchi throughout all lung fields.

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Module 2 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the fact that these two systems work so closely together. A variety of factors and circumstances that impact the emergence and severity of issues in one system can have a role in the performance of the other.
Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their capacity to work together. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.
An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
 
In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factored in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

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Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following
The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.
Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
How these processes interact to affect the patient.
By Day 7 of Week 4
Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following

  • The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.
  • Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
  • How these processes interact to affect the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 4
Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 2 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 2 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:
Module 2 Assignment Rubric
Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity
To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:
Submit your Module 2 Assignment draft and review the originality report.
Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4
To participate in this Assignment:
Module 2 Assignment
 

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Week 4 Case Study Sample Paper

NURS 6501 Week 2 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

Case Study Analysis
Student’s Name:
Department, University:
Number and Name of Course:
Instructors Name, Title:
Date:
 

Case Study Analysis

Congestive heart failure (CHF), often termed simply as heart failure, refers to a progressive and chronic condition affecting the heart muscles pumping power. It specifically involves the stage in which there is buildup of fluids in the heart, which results in inefficient pumping (Hajar, 2019). This paper will analyze a CHF patient and present the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes causing her symptoms, the effect of ethnicity and racial variables and the interaction of processes affecting the patient.

Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Processes

CHF often manifests in patients as fatigue, swollen legs, ankles or abdomen, gaining weight, and breath shortness when exercising or lying flat. Diuretics are the mainstay pharmacological therapy which reduces preload in patient with CHF. However, the patient in the case admits to not taking her diuretics. The diuretic medications inhibit water reabsorption from the tubules which consequently increases the volume and loss of water in the urine (McCance, & Huether, 2019). The patient admits that she stopped taking her diuretics as they made her get up every few hours to go to the bathroom. The main cause of the symptoms presented by the patient involves reduction in the hearts muscular efficiency which has occurred due to damage. Systole dysfunction results in stroke volume decreases where reductions in the heart muscles contractility enhances end systolic volume. The hearts contractility is lost due to reduced abilities of the fibers myosin and actin cross-linking during the hearts relaxation and contractions.

Ethnic or Racial Variables

Compared to other races or ethnic groups, African Americans have higher chances of heart failure incidences together with increased risks of mortalities caused by CHF compared to white populations (Tillman et al., 2019). Nearly 50% of all African American adults bear some kind of CVD with hypertension being the main etiological factor that contributes to such trends. The pathophysiology of hypertension in this population group is associated with relatively low renin activities, sodium sensitivities and possibly reduced production of nitric oxide. Other risk factors are higher burdens of diabetes and kidney diseases, genetics, socioeconomic health determinants, limited care access, together with lack of compliance to medications (CDC, 2016).

Interaction of processes

Various structural and functional changes occur in the heart of patients with CHF which interact to give rise to the disease condition. Compensatory increases in blood volume occur with the aim of increasing ventricular preloads and therefore enhancing stroke volumes.  Reductions in renal perfusions also occur and lead to reduced urine retention and output. Aorta baroreceptors and stretch receptors are also stimulated by decreases in blood pressure which the results in stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Decreases in flow of blood to the kidney leads to release of angiotensin and renin with retention of fluids and sodium by the kidneys occurring when the condition persists and this consequently increases volumes in circulation.

Conclusion

CHF affects the pumping power of heart muscles and manifests in various symptoms presented by the patient in the case. Diuretics are used in treating the condition and lack of adherence can lead to increased heart damage. African Americans are disproportionately affected by heart failure with hypertension or high blood pressure being the major etiological contributing factor. The disease condition arises due to interaction of changes in the functioning and structure of the heart.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Public health action plan to prevent heart disease and stroke. http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/action_plan
Hajar, R. (2019). Congestive Heart Failure: A History. Heart Views, 20(3), 129–132.
McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.
Tillman, F., Kim, J., Makhlouf, T., & Osae, L. (2019). A comprehensive review of chronic heart failure pharmacotherapy treatment approaches in African Americans. Therapeutic advances in cardiovascular disease13, 1753944719840192.
 


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What’s Coming Up in Module 3?

In Module 3, you will analyze processes related to gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders through case study analysis. To do this, you will analyze alterations in the relevant systems and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact physiological functioning and altered physiology.

Week 5 Knowledge Check: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

In Week 5 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 3. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.
Next Module
To go to the next Module:
Module 3

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