NURS 6050 Module 06 Week 11 Assignment: Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement

NURS 6050 Module 06 Week 11 Assignment: Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement

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Global Health Comparison

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Covid19 pandemic has affected almost all the global states since its discovery in 2019. The pandemic overburdened the global healthcare systems due to increased care needs of patients. Covid19 has high rate of morbidity and mortality. As a result, global states have been actively involved in the adoption of policies to minimize its impacts on the population and economy. Consequently, this paper compares the policy initiatives adopted by the UK and US governments to minimize the effects of covid19 on their economies and populations.

Global Healthcare Issue  

COVID19

Description Covid19 is a global pandemic that was started in 2019 in Wuhan, China. The disease spread to almost all the nations globally. Covid19 is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. The disease is easily spread through contact with infected media such as droplets. The impacts of covid19 on the global states have been severe. Accordingly, the high rate of its spread overburdened the global healthcare system due to the increased care needs of the patients affected by the disease. It also disrupted the global economies since most countries had to shut their economic activities to control the spread of the virus. Global states adopted several policies that aimed at minimizing the impacts of covid19 on the population and their economies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compare the policies that the US and UK governments adopted to address the pandemic.

 

 

Country United States

 

United Kingdom
Describe the policy in each country related to the identified healthcare issue Since the first discovery of covid19 in the US, the US government adopted a number of interventions to minimize the impacts of the disease. The policy decisions that were adopted included releasing finances to cushion the citizens from the adverse effects of unemployment. The state also provided tax relief for all the loaned students. There was the implementation of the Healthcare Enhancement Act that aimed at providing healthcare institution the support that they needed in addressing the increasing care needs of the population. There was also the implementation of the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplementary Appropriation Act that aimed at increasing mass testing of the population for covid19, research, and provision of treatments for the affected populations (Wetzel & Davis, 2020).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The UK government was proactive in implementing measures to fight covid19. Firstly, the government adopted tax relief measures that aimed at assisting businesses and loaned individuals adjust to the changes in business environment and unemployment. There was also the adoption of employment measures that included the job retention scheme that aimed at assisting employers that could not maintain their workforce due to the effect of the pandemic on their operations. The government also implemented the Kickstart Scheme that aimed at providing unemployment support for individuals aged between 16 and 24 that have been beneficiaries of the Universal Credit. The apprentice scheme was also adopted to ensure that any company that employs a new apprentice aged between 16 and 24 would receive 2000 pounds in support. Other interventions included the Statutory Sick Pay refunds for small and medium businesses and Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan Scheme (Codagnone et al., 2020).
What are the strengths of this policy? The policies adopted by the US government are associated with some strengths. Firstly, the policies strengthened the existing systems to respond effectively to the pandemic. The policies also leveraged on the existing resources to address the increasing needs of the pandemic. The policies also promoted equity, as seen in the free and massive testing of the population (Wetzel & Davis, 2020).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The policies adopted by the UK government are also associated with some strengths. One of them is the increased focus on ensuring economic sustainability. The government focused mainly on ensuring the minimal disruption of the livelihoods of the population. The policies also promoted adaptability in the healthcare systems. The healthcare systems received adequate support from the government to respond to the pandemic. The adequacy of the government support was attributed to the healthcare system in the US being owned largely by the government (Codagnone et al., 2020).
What are the weaknesses of this policy? The weakness of the policies adopted by the US is that the government played minimum role in influencing the decisions of healthcare organizations. The minimal role it played is largely attributed to the privatization of the US’s healthcare system. The policies are also attributed with the weakness the lack of a central body that directed response interventions in the states. Each state was responsible for implementing measures that it deemed applicable to containing the virus in its territories.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One of the weaknesses of the policies adopted in the UK is that they were relaxed before sustainable containment measures were achieved in the state. The consequences included the spike in the cases of the virus. The other weakness of the policy is not placing emphasis on the sustainability in supply of prevention materials. The government has been accused of laxity in overseeing the steady supply of protective equipment for the hospitals.
Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the specified global health issue. (Be specific and provide examples)

 

One of the social determinants of health that affects covid19 in the US is income. The health outcomes of covid19 are poor in low-income earners when compared to high-income earners. The difference is largely attributed to issues such as access and affordability of high quality care by the high-income earners. The other social determinant in the state is ethnicity. The prevalence of the pandemic and its effects were reported to be higher in ethnic minority groups than in the ethnic majority groups. The difference is largely attributed to health inequalities due to factors such as income, level of education, and employment status (Wetzel & Davis, 2020). One of the social determinant of health that affects covid19 in the UK is employment. Employment affected the household income during the pandemic, translating into the ability of individuals to acquire preventive equipment as well as afford high quality care that they needed. The other social determinant is level of income. The populations in lower socioeconomic status were severely affected by the restrictions during the pandemic. The risk of poor outcomes among them was also high due to the increased prevalence of other comorbid conditions such as hypertension and heart disease among them (Flynn et al., 2020).
How has each country’ government addressed cost, quality, and access to the selected global health issue? The US government addressed the issues of cost, quality and access to care by providing free covid19 testing for the population (Wetzel & Davis, 2020).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The UK government also provides free covid19 testing for its populations. It also supported the health organizations with resource support to ensure that the care needs of the population are met.
How has the identified health policy impacted the health of the global population? (Be specific and provide examples) The policy measures adopted in the US affected its populations in a number of ways. Firstly, it enhanced access to care for the population. The policies also promoted healthcare equity. The provision of free testing for covid19 and expansion of Medicare and Medicaid provisions translated into enhanced access to care for the population. The policies also minimized the impacts of covid19 on the population. Interventions such as tax relief and food relief ensured that the population did not suffer from the adversities of the pandemic (Laster Pirtle, 2020).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The policies that the UK government adopted strengthened the healthcare systems to address the increasing needs of the population during the pandemic. The strengthening of the healthcare systems implied that the population could access high quality, safe and efficient care. As a result, it minimized the impacts of the pandemic on the population (Longhurst et al., 2020).
Describe the potential impact of the identified health policy on the role of nurse in each country.  

One of the potential effects of the healthcare policies adopted by the US government on the role of the nurses is that it increases their need in disaster management. The pandemic exposed the need for nurses to play an active role in interventions that aim at minimizing the effects of pandemics through effective response. Nurses should therefore be involved in interventions such as disaster planning, preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery (Bojorquez et al., 2021).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The potential impacts of the policies adopted in the UK on the roles of the nurses is that it increased their need in disease prevention and management. Nurses played a critical role in the provision of care to the populations affected by the pandemic. The pandemic showed the increased need to ensure adequate nursing staffing to address current and emerging needs of the public.
Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. (Be specific and provide examples)  

Covid19 overburdened the American and UK’s healthcare systems. It led to a shortage of supply of essential materials such as personal protective equipment for its providers of care. It also affected policies in the states. It increased the need for the adoption of responsive policies to address the needs of emerging health issues. For example, the two countries were unprepared for the pandemic. As a result, it raised the need for them to adopt policy interventions that will respond to unforeseen events in the future (Bojorquez et al., 2021).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Notes/Comments  

 

 

 

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In conclusion, covid19 had a significant effect on the UK and US governments. The pandemic led to a disruption in the normal economic systems and processes. The UK and US governments adopted policy interventions that were effective in minimizing the effects of the pandemic on their economies and population. The pandemic exposed the unpreparedness level of the UK and US governments to respond to unforeseen events. Therefore, interventions that will increase the responsiveness of the two countries to future events should be adopted.

Reflection

Covid19 pandemic revealed the increased need for nurses and other healthcare providers to adopt a global perspective in promoting social change. A global perspective is needed to ensure that responsive and appropriate interventions are utilized to achieve the desired outcomes in addressing issues affecting the population. Therefore, I will advocate the incorporation of the global perspective into my practice and leadership as a nurse. I will lead the implementation of global perspectives into the formulation of policies in my institution. I will also strengthen the need for the utilization of globally accepted interventions in promoting social change in my practice (McDermott-Levy et al., 2018). I will empower those I work with to utilize the global perspective in their daily practice by educating them on its importance in promoting sustainability of change interventions.

The incorporation of the global perspective my affect my practice as a nurse and nurse leader by enabling me to develop the competencies that I need in promoting social change. The global perspective will enable me to develop knowledge and skills in developing interventions that are appropriate to diverse stakeholders in my organization. It will also build the competencies that I need in working with individuals from diverse backgrounds and needs. The incorporation of the global perspective into my practice as a nurse leader will contribute to social change. It will enable me to understand the need for best practices in addressing issues in my practice. It will also enable me to understand the need for inclusivity in practice for sustainable interventions (Lipnick et al., 2017). Lastly, it will increase my participation in addressing issues that influence access and utilization of care services by diverse populations in my practice.

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References

Bojorquez, I., Cabieses, B., Arósquipa, C., Arroyo, J., Novella, A. C., Knipper, M., Orcutt, M., Sedas, A. C., & Rojas, K. (2021). Migration and health in Latin America during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. The Lancet, 397(10281), 1243–1245. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00629-2

Codagnone, C., Bogliacino, F., Gómez, C., Charris, R., Montealegre, F., Liva, G., Lupiáñez-Villanueva, F., Folkvord, F., & Veltri, G. A. (2020). Assessing concerns for the economic consequence of the COVID-19 response and mental health problems associated with economic vulnerability and negative economic shock in Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. PLOS ONE, 15(10), e0240876. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240876

Flynn, D., Moloney, E., Bhattarai, N., Scott, J., Breckons, M., Avery, L., & Moy, N. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. Health Policy and Technology, 9(4), 673–691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2020.08.003

Laster Pirtle, W. N. (2020). Racial Capitalism: A Fundamental Cause of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Inequities in the United States. Health Education & Behavior, 47(4), 504–508. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198120922942

Lipnick, M. S., Bulamba, F., Ttendo, S., & Gelb, A. W. (2017). The Need for a Global Perspective on Task-Sharing in Anesthesia. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 125(3), 1049–1052. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000001988

Longhurst, G. J., Stone, D. M., Dulohery, K., Scully, D., Campbell, T., & Smith, C. F. (2020). Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat (SWOT) Analysis of the Adaptations to Anatomical Education in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland in Response to the Covid-19 Pandemic. Anatomical Sciences Education, 13(3), 301–311. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1967

McDermott-Levy, R., Leffers, J., & Mayaka, J. (2018). Ethical Principles and Guidelines of Global Health Nursing Practice. Nursing Outlook, 66(5), 473–481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2018.06.013

Wetzel, J. E., & Davis, J. M. (2020). The Response to the COVID19 Crisis by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. Victims & Offenders, 15(7–8), 1298–1304. https://doi.org/10.1080/15564886.2020.1830324

 

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