Discussion Post With 2 Responses To Class Mates
Discussion Post With 2 Responses To Class Mates
Post a summary of the psychotherapy that you selected and explain why it resonates with you the most at this time. Then compare the psychotherapy you selected with existential-humanistic therapy. What are the strengths and challenges of each type of psychotherapy? Describe a fictional client that you think would be best suited for the therapy you selected and one fictional client you think would be best suited for existential-humanistic therapy. Explain why.
More details to come. Will send 2 classmates posts to respond to (due 10/24)
s, CBT is well structured and takes a relatively shorter time (Malak, 2018). It is also one of the best therapies as it involves talking to clients and allowing them to share their feelings and emotions (Lecomte, Leclerc & Wykes, 2016). This offloads them from the burden of negative emotions and enables them to feel better. All clients undergoing CBT are taught how to break down their current issues into smaller, manageable bits. Moreover, CBT is an evidence-based and client-centered form of therapy as the approach used and sessions attended is dependent on the patient’s needs (Coulson et al., 2016). According to Malak (2018), CBT can work for a wide range of mental health issues. It is an effective therapy for conditions such as major depressive disorder, drug and substance abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders (Lecomte, Leclerc & Wykes, 2016). This remains one of my most preferred choices as it does not focus on past problems but rather on the current issues. Sorting out the current issues allows these clients to manage their past
Comparison of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Existential-Humanistic Therapy
There are several benefits associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. For instance, studies have shown that CBT’s efficacy is as high as when using pharmacotherapy to manage conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety, among other psychiatric conditions (Lecomte, Leclerc & Wykes, 2016). Clients who undertake CBT are taught about different life skills they implement in their daily lives, hence coping with daily and future challenges. Unlike other forms of therapy, it takes a shorter time to complete CBT sessions. As a result, most clients do not feel overwhelmed by the number of sessions. According to Coulson et al. (2016), cognitive behavioral therapy is more flexible as it takes different forms, such as computer programs, self-help books, and groups. This makes it easier for clients to select their most preferred format. Despite the above challenges, however, CBT has a few limitations. For instance, some individuals believe that given that it focuses on current issues, it may not be very effective in dealing with the underlying causes of these problems (Malak, 2018). The efficacy of CBT can be reduced if the client fails to cooperate.
Existential-Humanistic therapy is a form of therapy that focuses on how individuals interact with their environment and how they can utilize this to live authentic lifestyles (Daei Jafari, Aghaei & Rashidi Rad, 2020). This approach aims at observing human behavior in the context of the environment and provides room for self-awareness. One of the major advantages of this therapy is that it enables individuals to make meaning out of their personal experiences (Daei Jafari, Aghaei & Rashidi Rad, 2020). This approach emphasizes the need to make personal choices and to take responsibility for one’s negative emotions. This therapy is humanistic in nature, such that it focuses on self-fulfillment and values personal feelings and perceptions. Existential-humanistic therapy has several setbacks (Hanis, Sadeghi & Gholamrezaei, 2020). For instance, some people maintain that it is difficult to objectify personal experiences. Their argument is based on the fact that real experiences are subjective in nature and may vary between individuals. Critics argue that the majority of the claims in this approach do not have a scientific basis as they have insufficient objective findings (Hanis, Sadeghi & Gholamrezaei, 2020). Whatever one perceives as a real experience may be unreal to another client. It is also difficult to verify the subjective experiences. The counseling focuses on the major challenges that individuals face in their day-to-day living.
Mr. AJ is a 40-year older adult who is an ex-soldier. He worked as a US soldier for 10 years before retiring. His wife has been complaining that her husband suffers from severe nightmares and has resorted to excessive drinking. Based on the assessment, the client claims that he feels depressed by his best friend’s thoughts, who was shot in the head during their stay in Iraq. In this case, this is a suitable client to initiate on CBT as this therapy can help him overcome his nightmares and thoughts of his best friend’s death by voicing it out.
Mrs. SK is a 20-year old lady with a low mood for the past 2 weeks. She feels hopeless, has lost appetite, and do not interact with people. This started after she lost her mother, who she was dependent on. Existential humanistic therapy can best work for this client as it can allow her to reflect on her life and make the best decision to start interacting with people and start a new life.
Coulson, N. S., Smedley, R., Bostock, S., Kyle, S. D., Gollancz, R., Luik, A. I., … & Espie, C. A. (2016). The pros and cons of getting engaged in an online social community embedded within digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: survey among users. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(4), e88.
Daei Jafari, M. R., Aghaei, A., & Rashidi Rad, M. (2020). Existential Humanistic Therapy with Couples and its Effect on Meaning of Life and Love Attitudes. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 1-16. Retrieved from: < https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01926187.2020.1770142>
Hanis, G. N., Sadeghi, M., & Gholamrezaei, S. (2020). Comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Retrieved from:< https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr183151>
Lecomte, T., Leclerc, C., & Wykes, T. (2016). CBT Groups for Psychosis With Other Targets. Group CBT for Psychosis, 133-142. doi:10.1093/med:psych/9780199391523.003.0014
Malak, M. Z. (2018). Internet Addiction and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Clinical Applications. doi:10.5772/intechopen.71277
Comparing Existential-Humanistic Therapy to Other Types of Therapy
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Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is an attachment-oriented treatment technique that assists patients in resolving interpersonal issues and gear symptomatic recovery (Cuijpers et al., 2016). IPT is a preferable option in comparison to supportive psychotherapy because it offers the platform for comprehensive intervention engagement, which fosters a personalized solution that can be monitored both inside and outside therapy. Furthermore, it resonates more with its highly advanced and brief approach that is typically completed within three to four months. On the other hand, Hoffman et al. (2019) defines existential-humanistic therapy as a treatment that includes the client’s subjective experience in addition to the question of positive growth instead of pathology. Thus, the most predominant themes for this type of therapy are an individual’s freedom and responsibility.
Existential-humanistic approaches are governed by the belief that people are self-aware and subsequently have the ability to make choices according to their theoretical perspectives. The main strength of this model is its optimistic and free-willed nature. As it would seem, existential-humanistic approaches are tailored to suit different patients based on their unique experiences and perspectives. However, Hoffman et al. (2019) illuminate that the model is limited in its abstract and vague nature; it is not empirical, which makes it difficult to scientifically validate. Conversely, Cuijpers et al. (2016) highlight that IPT is an empirically supported treatment that curbs depressive symptoms, emphasizing the importance of interpersonal relationships, which considerably contribute to the development of mental disorders. However, Linardon et al. (2019) illuminates that some clients have been observed to drop out of the program, necessitating its enhancement.
An ideal client for IPT would be a patient demonstrating disorders such as depression, bipolar, and eating disorders. This is because IPT serves to improve interpersonal relationships by treating mood disorders (Linardon et al., 2019). Correspondingly, an ideal client for existential-humanistic therapy would be one demonstrating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) because the treatment focuses on anxiety bred from clients’ encounters with life conflicts.
Cuijpers, P., Donker, T., Weissman, M. M., Ravitz, P., & Cristea, I. A. (2016). Interpersonal psychotherapy for mental health problems: a comprehensive meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(7), 680-687.
Hoffman, L., Jackson, T., Mendelowitz, E., Wang, X., Yang, M., Bradford, K., & Schneider, K. J. (2019). Challenges and New Developments in Existential‐Humanistic and Existential‐Integrative Therapy. The Wiley World Handbook of Existential Therapy, 290-303.
Linardon, J., Fitzsimmons-Craft, E. E., Brennan, L., Barillaro, M., & Wilfley, D. E. (2019). Dropout from interpersonal psychotherapy for mental health disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychotherapy Research, 29(7), 870-881.
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Case Study: Williams Thomson Is a 38-year-old African American male who is an Iraq war veteran. He and his wife live in California, with his elder brother Henry Thomson. They Moved from New Jersey after they became homeless because he was unable to pay his mortgage. Williams has a JD degree and practices as a lawyer specializing in finance law. However, his history of alcohol abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has greatly affected his career. When not at work, he likes running, soccer, and listening to jazz music.
The DSM-IV defines PTSD as a stress and anxiety disorder which follows a traumatic event (APA, 2013). Three symptom clusters characterize the disorder: re-experiencing symptoms, avoidance symptoms, and hyper-arousal symptoms. These symptoms are often chronic and hard to treat. According to Maguen et al. (2020), approximately 23% of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder. Mr. Thomson meets the DSM5 criteria for diagnosis of PTSD because he has directly experienced traumatic events while serving as a captain in the Iraq war. His inability to keep a job and his homelessness are a direct consequence of PTSD. His history of alcohol abuse, which is a possible consequence of PTSD, may have made his condition worse.
Two specific evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure therapy (PE), are among the most effective treatments available for PTSD (Maguen et al., 2020). Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is a specific type of cognitive behavioral therapy that has been effective in reducing symptoms of PTSD that have developed after experiencing a variety of traumatic events including child abuse, combat, rape, and natural disasters (Maguen et al., 2020). According to Wheeler (2014), CPT focuses on negative thoughts, behavior, and emotional response resulting to positive thinking and helps patients learn how to modify and challenge unhelpful beliefs related to the trauma. Psychotherapy is often provided to veterans in combination with pharmacotherapy. According to Schneier et al. (2015), combined treatment of PTSD with sertraline plus mirtazapine may have clinically meaningful advantages in symptomatic improvement, relative to SSRI treatment alone, and acceptable tolerability.
Based on the treatment options mentioned above, Mr. Thomson is expected to learn how to evaluate and change the upsetting/negative thoughts he has harbored since his trauma. Psychotherapy and psychopharmacology combined is expected to result in symptom reduction and help him cope with symptoms like anxiety and depression, hence keeping him more focused at work. According to Stahl (2013), effective treatment of PTSD results in decreased nightmares, flashbacks, and a decrease in agitation. CPT will also be an effective tool to help him deal with his alcohol abuse problems and return to work.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Maguen, S., Holder, N., Li, Y., Madden, E., Neylan, T. C., Seal, K. H., Lujan, C., Patterson, O. V., DuVall, S. L., & Shiner, B. (2020). Factors associated with PTSD symptom improvement among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans receiving evidenced-based psychotherapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 268, 1–7. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.04.039
Schneier, F. R., Campeas, R., Carcamo, J., Glass, A., Lewis-Fernandez, R., Neria, Y., Sanchez-Lacay, A., Vermes, D., & Wall, M. M. (2015). Combined Mirtazapine and Ssri Treatment of Ptsd: A Placebo-Controlled Trial. Depression and Anxiety, 32(8), 570–579. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1002/da.22384
Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press
Wheeler, K. (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse : a how-to guide for evidence-based practice (Second edition.). Springer Publishing Company, LLC.
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