BA Assignment

BA Assignment

The focus group in this case are the patients who have been diagnosed with the COVID-19. The pandemic of COVID-19 has caused major public health especially on the safety of the patients and the healthcare providers. COVID-19 has forced the majority of severely ill patients to undergo mechanical ventilation for a longer period. This means that they are exposed to the risk of other nosocomial infections like ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VAP). Once a patient has been discharged from the healthcare facility after the treatment for COVID-19, they are likely to experience post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). The PICS is characterized by deficits of strength, a decline in the cognitive, and mental health disturbances that are observed following the discharge from the critical care. The COVID-19 patients who are admitted in the intensive care units require mechanical ventilation and this goes on to the PICS. The patients who are at risk of developing the PICS have a history of associated morbidities for example diabetes, hypertension, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary illness, and a longer period of mechanical ventilation (Jaffri & Jaffri, 2020).

Learning about the complications experienced by the COVID-19 patients under ventilation is important in informing about the risks of the VAP and the COVID-19 patients. It reveals how the exposure of these patients to nosocomial infections such as ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia is worsening the clinical conditions of these patients and exposing them to the increase in mortality, and prolonging and increasing the healthcare costs associated with hospitalization. It informs on the importance of the prevention, identification, and treatment of the early VAP to boost the effective treatment process of the COVID-19. Learning about the problems associated with the PICS is important to the healthcare providers to be actively involved in the identification of the impairments and to facilitate the process of administering the tailored care to deal with such impairments (Jaffri & Jaffri, 2020).

PICOT Questions: Does the prevention, identification, and treatment of the early VAP helpful in increasing the chances of successful treatment COVID-19 patients as compared to non during hospitalization?

This paper is aimed at looking at the effectiveness of the intervention that involves the prevention, identification, and early treatment in dealing with problems presented by ventilator-associated complications in COVID-19 patients. Usually, COVID-19 patients under ventilators are exposed to healthcare issues that affect their well-being. These patients have been exposed to the nosocomial infection for example ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia and post-intensive care syndrome. While in the ICU, the COVID-19 patients require mechanical ventilation, and PIC may occur after discharge. The patients who are likely to develop the PICS are having a history of the morbidities like diabetes, high blood pressure, asthmatic illness, and chronic obstructive pulmonary illness. The readmission of these patients leads to a decline in cognition, depression, and anxiety. The prevention, early identification, and treatment of the VAP are playing the role of influencing the success of the treatment. The higher risks to the VAP among the COVID-19 patients are characterized by the poorly process of identification of the VAP earlier enough and the delay in the empiric therapy. The initiation of the treatment through the use of the empiric antimicrobials is helping in the treatment of the pathogens that lead to severe respiratory infections and sepsis. Strategies can be developed to help in dealing with issues that arise from the ICU (Povoa et al., 2020).

Level of Evidence

The questions being asked in dealing with the problem of the ventilator complications in COVID-19 patients is on the effectiveness of the prevention, identification, and the treatment of the early VAP on the chances of successful treatment COVID-19 patient. The best study to respond to this question is the quantitative study to help in determining the effectiveness of the proposed intervention on dealing with the issue. Some of the factors that can be considered when determining the success of implementing the intervention are related to the reduction in the co-infections, improvement in the clinical conditions of the COVID-19 patients, reduction in the reported cases of the mortality linked to the VAP, and the reduction in the number of hospital days (Jaffri & Jaffri, 2020).

Search strategy

The success of completing this capstone proposed project is based on the key terms used to search for the relevant articles to be used as a reference. The key search terms used include coronavirus, ventilator-associated pneumonia, COVID-19, the co-infections, the microbes, the secondary infection, the nosocomial, or the healthcare-associated infection of the ventilators, and the post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). The search strategy is also based on the selection of the best database to provide detailed information. In this case, the CU library as well as PubMed are relied on as the best database to guide in the research work. The focus of the intervention is on the effectiveness of the prevention, identification, and treatment of the early VAP in the improvement of the treatment outcome for patients who are diagnosed with COVID-19 and are undergoing hospitalization.

The attention was given to the importance of interventions related to the prevention, identification, and treatment of the early VAP to prevent the health complications on patients undergoing treatment for the COVID-19 in the healthcare facilities. Therefore, the articles searched were those which were based on the existence of the gaps in the earlier identification of the VAP as well as the exposure of COVID-19 patients to the VAP. The focus was also on the experiences of the COVID-19 patients after their discharge from the healthcare facilities. In many cases, patients are being discharged when their COVID-19 tests results turn negative. Little considerations are put on the safety of these patients or the dangers they are exposed to upon discharge (Povoa et al., 2020).

The majority of healthcare organizations and healthcare providers based their arguments that once the patients are discharged from the ICU or hospitals and are tested negative, their problems are already solved. This reveals the gap in the knowledge amongst the healthcare providers concerning post-intensive care syndrome. PICS is a severe problem that requires attention since it leads to the loss of the physical strengths, reduction in cognitive abilities, and the disturbance to the mental health of the patients. The acute lung injuries and the acute respiratory distress syndrome among critically ill patients are linked to the thoughtful changes in the structure and the function of the alveoli. The changes are causing impair of the lung’s defense mechanism in dealing with the bacterial challenges thus leading to the VAP and poor healthcare outcome of the COVID-19 patients. Therefore the selected articles are those which are related to the VAP cases on patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and the PICS among the COVID-19 patients after their discharge from the healthcare facilities (Povoa et al., 2020).



Jaffri, A., & Jaffri, U. A. (2020). Post-Intensive care syndrome and COVID-19: crisis after a crisis?. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Cardiopulmonary and Acute Care. Povoa, H. C., Chianca, G. C., & Iorio, N. L. (2020). COVID-19: An Alert to Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia. Infectious Diseases and Therapy, 1.

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