Advance Health Assessment And Pharmacology

Discussion 1

With the information presented in Chapter 1 of Ball et al. in mind, consider the following:

¬∑ By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned a new patient profile by your Instructor for this Discussion.¬†Note: Please see the ‚ÄúCourse Announcements‚ÄĚ section of the classroom for your new patient profile assignment.

· How would your communication and interview techniques for building a health history differ with each patient?

· How might you target your questions for building a health history based on the patient’s social determinants of health?

· What risk assessment instruments would be appropriate to use with each patient, or what questions would you ask each patient to assess his or her health risks?

· Identify any potential health-related risks based upon the patient’s age, gender, ethnicity, or environmental setting that should be taken into consideration.

¬∑ Select¬†one¬†of the risk assessment instruments presented in Chapter 1 or Chapter 5 of the¬†Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination¬†text, or another tool with which you are familiar, related to your selected patient.

· Develop at least five targeted questions you would ask your selected patient to assess his or her health risks and begin building a health history.

Post a summary of the interview and a description of the communication techniques you would use with your assigned patient. Explain why you would use these techniques. Identify the risk assessment instrument you selected, and justify why it would be applicable to the selected patient. Provide at least five targeted questions you would ask the patient.

New Patients profile

Patient Profiles:

#1: 26-year-old Lebanese female living in graduate-student housing:

Assigned to Last names starting with A-H

#2: 14-year-old biracial male living with his grandmother in a high-density public housing complex

Assigned to Last names starting with I-Q

#3:  38-year-old Native American pregnant female living on a reservation

Assigned to Last names starting with R-Z

Resources for reference

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019).¬†Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach¬†(9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

  • Chapter 1, ‚ÄúThe History and ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Interviewing Process‚ÄĚ

This chapter explains the process of developing relationships with patients in order to build an effective health history. The authors offer suggestions for adapting the creation of a health history according to age, gender, and disability.

  • Chapter 5, ‚ÄúRecording ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Information‚ÄĚ

This chapter provides rationale and methods for maintaining clear and accurate records. The authors also explore the legal aspects of patient records.

Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

  • Chapter 2, “The Comprehensive History and ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Physical Exam” (pp. 19‚Äď29)

Deckx, L., van den Akker, M., Daniels, L., De Jonge, E. T., Bulens, P., Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G., ‚Ķ Buntinx, F. (2015). Geriatric screening tools are of limited value to predict decline in functional status and quality of life: Results of a cohort study. BMC Family Practice, 16, 1‚Äď12.¬†

Wu, R. R., & Orlando, L. A. (2015). Implementation of health risk assessments with family health history: Barriers and benefits. Postgraduate Medical Journal, (1079), 508‚Äď513.¬†

Lushniak, B. D. (2015). Surgeon general’s perspectives: Family health history: Using the past to improve future health. Public Health Reports, (1), 3. 

Jardim, T. V., Sousa, A. L. L., Povoa, T. I. R., Barroso, W. K. S., Chinem, B., Jardim, L., ‚Ķ Jardim, P. C. B. V. (2015). The natural history of cardiovascular risk factors in health professionals: 20-year follow-up. BMC Public Health, 15(1111), 1‚Äď7.¬†

Discussion 2

Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body.

When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease.

For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug.

To Prepare

· Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

· Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.

· Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.

· Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.

Resources for reference

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2018). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice providers. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1, ‚ÄúPrescriptive ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Authority‚ÄĚ (pp. 1‚Äď3)
  • Chapter 2, ‚ÄúRational Drug ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Selection and Prescription Writing‚ÄĚ (pp. 5‚Äď9)
  • Chapter 3, ‚ÄúPromoting ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy‚ÄĚ (pp. 11‚Äď16)
  • Chapter 4, ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†‚ÄúPharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions‚ÄĚ (pp. 17‚Äď40)
  • Chapter 5, ‚ÄúAdverse Drug ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Reactions and Medical Errors‚ÄĚ (pp. 41‚Äď49)
  • Chapter 6, ‚ÄúIndividual Variation in Drug ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Response‚ÄĚ (pp. 51‚Äď56)

American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults.¬†Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674‚Äď694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767

American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center.

This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm

This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html

This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioner’s manual. Retrieved from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/pubs/manuals/pract/index.html

This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements, security issues, recordkeeping, prescription requirements, and addiction treatment programs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-c). Registration. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/index.html

This website details key aspects of drug registration.

Fowler, M. D. (2015). Guide to the code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements: Development, interpretation, and application. Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Association, 2015. 

This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development, interpretation, and application in practice.

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/error-prone-abbreviations-list

This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors.

Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166‚Äď173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17

This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing.

Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacist‚Äźled educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29(5), 248‚Äď254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446

The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacist‚Äźled educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students‚Äô prescribing skills, perception of preparedness to prescribe, and perception of pharmacist as collaborator.

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  • Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, including a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words. Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source. One or two-sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or ‚Äúgood post,‚ÄĚ and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words. I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

  • Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately. In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies. Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work). Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

  • APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with the APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in Loud-cloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required). Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation. I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

  • Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage over-utilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Master’s level and deduct points accordingly. As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content. It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

  • LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to Lopes Write, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a ‚Äúfinal submit‚ÄĚ to me. Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes. Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else‚Äôs thoughts more than your own? Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in Loud-cloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

  • Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is a 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies. Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances. If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect. I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension. As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

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Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me: Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class. Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

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